Vaccinations: What vaccinations do adults need?

Do you think vaccinations are for kids? Well, whoever put that idea into your mind was wrong. Vaccinations make you immune to certain diseases. But most of the immunizations dwindle as the years pass by, leaving you and your body at high risk to many ailments.

Your body’s demand for immunizations doesn’t just stop as you become an adult. It is necessary to stay up-to-date with several immunizations at specific ages for the best protection. This article includes the list of vaccines which are required during your adult life


Shingles are caused by the varicella-zoster virus. This virus is also responsible for chickenpox. Shingles vaccine will protect you from the chances of rashes and even from chickenpox. It also reduces the risk/severity of developing ongoing nerve-pain. This vaccine is recommended for adults aged 50 or over.


Pneumococcal diseases are infections caused by a bacteria named Streptococcus Pneumoniae or pneumococcus. These infections can be as small as ear/sinus infections or can be as threatening as pneumonia/bloodstream diseases. The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine reduces your risk of getting infected from 23 types of pneumococcal bacteria. Adults over the age of 65, adults with chronic diseases like diabetes, heart disease, etc. and active smokers are suggested to take this vaccine as a precaution.

Influenza shots

The seasonal Influenza vaccine protects you from seasonal flu. Every adult or everyone over the age of 6 months must just get a flu shot every year to reduce the risk of flu and fatal infections caused by them. Also, this vaccine is highly recommended to adults with chronic illnesses like asthma, heart disease, diabetes and those above the age of 65.


Tetanus infection is caused by a bacteria called Clostridium tetani. This bacteria produces a toxin that contracts the muscles throughout the body. The tetanus vaccine protects you from those bacteria. Once the regular tetanus shot is taken, every adult needs a tetanus booster every 10 years. One of the tetanus shot has to be Tdap vaccine to avoid tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis. It is mandatory for women during pregnancy.


Hepatitis vaccine prevents the liver from Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B viruses. These viruses can induce life-threatening effects on the liver. Every adult dealing with exposed body fluids of patients must take the Hepatitis B vaccine. Also, the adults who travel a lot are preferred to get a shot of the Hepatitis B vaccine.


Apart from the above-mentioned vaccines, adults are also recommended to take vaccines against HPV-Human Papillomavirus to reduce the risk of certain cancers. There are other diseases like measles, mumps, rubella and meningococcal diseases that can also be prevented by periodic vaccinations.

Why suffer for something that can be avoided? Stay up-to-date with vaccination as it is one of the safest methods to protect yourself.

Putting mental health first: Dealing with anxiety

Some people find it hard to keep their stress, anxiety, nervousness, and tension under control. If anxiety or worry feels like too much to bear with, it can be a sign of anxiety disorder. Anxiety can be a real joy killer for your life. Putting mental health first by coping up with anxiety might sound unattainable to mind-disturbed people. However, below are a few hacks to deal with your anxiety and stress.

1. Understanding your self is the key. Write down your thoughts.

Most of the time, when anxiety strikes you, you don’t even realize what is happening to you. It will start becoming a normal routine, which you will start getting adjusted to. Eventually, you will start believing it is normal.

Self-realization is the key to face your anxiety. Know what you are going through. Acknowledge your concerns. The concerns might include persistent, excessive, and unrealistic worrying about anything and everything. Write down your daunting fears. This can help you get your anxiety out of your head. When you write down about what makes you anxious, you tend to feel more relaxed.

2. This is Okay! Take a long breath!

Yes. What you are going through is completely fine. There is nothing to be ashamed of about anxiety nor depression. When you feel anxious take a few cleansing breaths. Taking a couple of diaphragmatic breaths through the nose and letting it out through mouth at regular intervals can work in the long run. You can also set a breathing alarm to never miss out on your breathing breaks. Mediating for a few hours daily can be helpful for people dealing with anxiety. Apart from that, mini-meditations can also be a stress buster during your busy schedule. The best thing about mini-meditation is that it can be done on a train or while walking down the street or at an airport while waiting for your flight or even when you are in an elevator.

Besides meditations, doing yoga or walking every day can help you too. Anxiety can be controlled to a large extent when you divert your focus from mind to your body.

3. Face your fears.

Negative thoughts have the power to worsen the situation. You can face the situation by questioning your negative thoughts. Talkback to your fears. Ask them whether they are true. Once you continue to do this, you will realise there is a point where you can take back the control. So instead of strengthening your negative thoughts by overthinking, you can talk back to your fears and take control. This is going to be a long journey, but you will find the light at the end of the tunnel, for sure.

4. Smell it out.

Aromatherapy helps in activating certain receptors in the brain which is believed to have the potential to reduce anxiety. So lighting scented candles, incense sticks, or diffusing scents like lavender, sandalwood, and chamomile in any form can be soothing to your mind and help you relax a bit.

5. Never alone!

Millions of people out there live with an anxiety disorder. Although these statistics won’t solve your problem, you should know that you are not alone. You should know that your health is important and there are people out there willing to help you no matter what. And it is completely OKAY to put you first, at least at times. Be easy on yourself and start sharing your feelings with the right people. The set of right people might include parents, friends, spouses, and more importantly medical help. Don’t ever let anything consume you. Not even ANXIETY. Because YOU ARE IMPORTANT.

To cope with anxiety, you can also try focusing on a particular object, repeating a mantra, closing your eyes for a while and even going to a happy place will help you relieve your stress. You must follow a healthy daily routine with exercise and diet which includes supplements like green tea, ashwagandha, dark chocolate, lemon balm, omega-3 fatty acids, and valerian root. Above all, talk to a counselor or psychiatrist for practical remedies and help.

Indian superfoods you must include in your diet

Superfoods are food that is rich in nutrients and exceptionally beneficial for health and well-being. It’s important to include superfoods in your diet to keep your diet nutrient-dense. They are often associated with food such as broccoli and avocados. In reality, you can find many superfoods in your kitchen at home.

Choose these below Indian superfoods to help improve your health and get rid of toxins from your body:

1. Ghee

Most often dismissed due to its high-fat content, ghee is rich in antioxidants and aids in strengthening the immune system. If consumed on a regular basis, it also improves digestion, promotes brain function and strengthens bones. A single tablespoon a day is all it takes so, add it over your rice, rotis or just about any dish to enjoy all its nutritional benefits.

2. Amla

Commonly known as the Indian gooseberry, Amla is another superfood that helps strengthen the immune system. Along with having strong antioxidising capabilities, the fruit is rich in vitamins and promotes the growth of hair, skin and nails. It is also a natural remedy for those suffering from the common cold, many chronic skin conditions and it even helps regulate blood sugar levels. You can consume this superfruit once a day in the form of juice or chutney.

3. Turmeric

We have been hearing about the medicinal properties of Haldi milk for decades. Turmeric is a detoxifying agent that helps significantly improve cardiovascular health, enhance liver functions and fight inflammations as well. Coming from the root of the Curcuma longa plant, this spice is easy to incorporate into almost any dish and is favourable for the bright yellow colour it adds. Even the West is beginning to catch-up with the health benefits of the Indian spice.

4. Ragi

Highly recommended for diabetics, ragi is a super grain that greatly lends a hand in regulating blood sugar levels. Since it is also rich in iron and vitamin D, it reduces the chances of getting a stroke. Loaded with calcium and fiber, it is the ideal alternative for those who are allergic to gluten and lactose. Adding ragi into your diet will also help with weight loss.

5. Curd

We know curd as a great source of calcium which helps strengthen our bones and muscles. Those who regularly consume curd can also benefit from enhanced digestion and improved cardiovascular health and immunity. It is also a common food for diet plans for weight loss and de-stressing.

6. Jackfruit

For a more nutritious energy boost, go for a jackfruit. Since this superfood can be a fruit, nut and carbohydrate, it is considered a whole meal which can be consumed in place of rice or rotis. It is rich in vitamins, fibre, and phytonutrients that instantly energize your body when consumed. It can also help with weight loss, reduce cholesterol and even beat diabetes. Because of its meat-like tenderness, it is also known as the Indian vegan substitute for meat.

7. Makhanas

Sold in the market as lotus seeds, makhanas are a great healthy snack option to keep around the house. Not only are they low in fat, but they are also rich in protein, iron, zinc and magnesium. Makhanas can also help people de-stress and sleep better. These superfoods are proven to help slow down the ageing process as well.

The Indian superfoods list is a long one and includes many other food items such as drumsticks, daliya and jau. They are very simple to add to your diet and can make a world of difference to your mental, emotional and physical well-being. It’s time to switch to superfoods and get the whole family involved in the routine.

Geriatric care: Basics of caring for older individuals

Geriatric medicine is the stream of science that deals with the health care of older adults. Geriatric care demands attention and careful supervision rather than treatments. Aging can also increase the susceptibility to several diseases in older adults. Here we present before you a few tips to provide the best care for the senior citizens.

Educate yourself about the common ailments in seniors

The medical necessities of a human being change with age. The most common medical problems encountered by older adults include memory loss, dementia, heart conditions, and delirium. You have to be aware of the ways to deal with these issues while dealing with senior citizens. The memory-related ailments should be dealt with patience. Also, physical, as well as mental concerns, should be taken care of with proper medical assistance.

Support them in staying active and in socializing

With the help of their doctor or physiotherapist, you can build an exercise routine for your loved one which will help them stay active at least 150 minutes a week. You can also accompany them during their exercises to make sure they never get bored and skips their routine. Apart from regular exercise, you can always take your loved ones for nature walks, which would also help them in socializing. Socialising can make them feel secure emotionally, physically, and mentally. For the same reason, it is very important to encourage them to socialize with society.

Homes should be senior-friendly

You have to make sure the place your loved one stays in is safe and is accessible. From installing bars or railings in bathrooms to making non-slippery floors/ stairs, extra care must be put into the living space of an older adult. You can note down the requirements of your loved one and talk with an architect to adopt those ideas to implement senior-friendly amenities in their living space.

Helping them in daily chores

Older people might find certain chores difficult. But most of the time they might be also hesitant to ask for help. However, they might expect us to understand their needs and act accordingly. You can always talk to them and offer help on things they find difficult to do. Buying grocery for them or driving them to hospitals for regular check-ups etc. can give them a feeling of reassurance.

Age demands respect

It is our responsibility to give the respect they deserve. Keeping their dignity intact is the best act of care to provide them during their senior days. Many of them may have gone through things we can only imagine and respecting their experiences and age will be the foremost thing they expect from us.

Above are a few tips to make the lives of your loved ones happier and more peaceful. Along with all this, it is also important to seek immediate medical assistance in case of any emergencies, rather than going with home remedies.

What is a TMT test?

Treadmill test (TMT) is a form of exercise test where a stress test is performed while the person is exercising on a treadmill during the course of an Electro Cardiogram (ECG). The purpose of a TMT is majorly to compare blood circulation in the heart when the person is resting and when under optimum physical pressure. Abnormal heart rhythms can be detected while exercising and therefore diagnose the presence or absence of coronary artery diseases.

The test involves walking on a treadmill while the electrical activity of the heart is being monitored. The speed and incline of the treadmill are increased throughout the span of the test. The result shows how well the heart responds to the stress of different levels of exercise. The blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) are monitored before, during and after the test. Adhesive electrodes and mild abrasion are used to ensure good quality ECG. The person is advised to walk as long as possible because the test is effort-dependent.  It is also important for the person to tell the technologist if he experiences symptoms such as chest pain, dizziness and unusual shortness of breath or extreme fatigue. The blood pressure, heart rate, and ECG are monitored for 3 to 5 minutes after the exercise. The data is reviewed by a cardiologist.

The patient is advised against eating or drinking anything other than water for nearly 4 hours before the test. If the patient is diabetic, he should consult the doctor on the quantity of insulin that can be injected on the day of the test. If the person is under medicine for diabetes he should only resume taking them only after the test has been administered. Comfortable clothes and shoes should be worn for the test.

A TMT is performed to identify a congenital heart problem like Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) where coronary arteries get clogged, diseased or damaged. It is also used to determine the condition of the heart after a person went through angioplasty or heart-attack. Shallow breathing, dizziness, chest discomfort, and abrupt bodily weakness are some of the repressed conditions that can be detected through a TMT. A TMT can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of medicines on angina and ischemia.  It also helps in discerning any abnormal heartbeat rate because of exertion caused by exercise.

TMT is now widely available at a relatively low cost. It is used to estimate prognosis and determine functional capacity. It helps in assessing the probability and extent of coronary disease.

Hygiene Check

Hygiene Check: How often should you clean, replace certain household items like bedding, toothbrushes, pillows, towels

Your home is where you eat, sleep and spend a lot of your time in. But how hygienic is your home environment? Do you take the time out to clean and replace household items or do you lay back and let filth collect in your home? A sweep and a mop are not enough to do away with household dust and the growth of bacteria.

Here is a handy list of everyday household items that you should be cleaning and changing at regular intervals:

1. Pillows

While you might be washing your pillowcases from time to time, the pillow is not given as much importance. When left unwashed, your pillow collects dust mites, bugs, dead skin and a significant amount of fungi as well. To avoid this, just toss the pillows into the washing machine once every three months and remember to replace them every one or two years.

2. Bedsheets

We spend an average of 7-10 hours a day in bed, at which point our sweat, body oils, saliva, sexual fluids and much more accumulate on the bedsheets. It makes for the perfect breeding ground for dust mites, which can cause problems for those with respiratory issues. Bedsheets need to be washed on a weekly basis and thrown away after 2-3 years of its use.

3. Mattresses

If your bedsheets are not cleaned at regular intervals, your mattress will face the wrath of it. All the dirt that gets accumulated on the bedsheets will find its way to your mattress. Bed bugs are common critters often found breeding in mattresses are old and left uncleaned for long periods. For this reason, it is important to get your mattress cleaned at least once or twice a year and ditch it every eight years. A new mattress will give you better sleep as well.

4. Bathroom towels

It is important to wash your towels after every three of four uses. It may seem that a towel should be able to go longer without a wash since it is only used against our clean bodies. However, these towels are often left damp and warm allowing germs and bacteria to grow on them. Don’t forget to replace the towel every three to four years as they will lose their ability to absorb water making it easier for bacteria to grow.

5. Toothbrush

Unless you are looking forward to cavities, bad breath, and gum disease, your toothbrush needs to be replaced at least every 3 months. Do not wait around for your toothbrush looks like you need a new one. A splayed out toothbrush could harm your teeth while brushing causing tiny abrasions where bacteria can grow from. When it comes to a toothbrush, it is important to purchase one of good qualities.

6. Hairbrush

If you think about the times you have combed your hair with the same brush, it should be enough reason for you to clean your brush regularly. You can blame your greasy hair and dandruff on the unclean hairbrush that has collected all the sweat and dead skin cells from your scalp. At least once a week, clean your brush using hot soapy water and remove all hair caught in it. Dispose of it when the bristles begin to give out, preferably once every year.

While every household item has its own timeline for cleaning and replacing, the timelines get altered when you fall ill. If you’ve been sick for a few days, it is best to get it all cleaned from bedsheets to towels.

Tinnitus: Why are my ears ringing?

Tinnitus is usually a noise that a person hears consciously. The sound does not come from any source outside the body. Tinnitus is not a disease but a symptom of an underlying problem. The most common form is a high-pitched ringing in the ears. Other forms of sounds are also heard such as ringing, buzzing, roaring, clicking, hissing and humming. The sound may vary from a low roar to a high squeal. Sometimes the sound is so loud that it interferes with one’s ability to hear properly or concentrate. Tinnitus can be perpetual or intermittent. There are two kinds of tinnitus, subjective and objective. Subjective tinnitus includes sound in the ears that only the affected person can hear. It is caused by problems in the inner, middle or outer ear. It might also be caused by complications in the auditory nerves and auditory pathways. In very few cases the sound is objective which means other people can also hear the sound, especially a doctor when examining a patient. This type of noise is caused by cardiovascular or musculoskeletal movements or because of a middle-ear bone condition. Objective tinnitus is of a more serious nature.

Symptoms of tinnitus include non-auditory, internal, intermittent or continuous low or high-pitched sounds in one or both ears. It is advised to consult a doctor when tinnitus develops after an upper respiratory infection such as cold and it does not improve within a week. One should also consult the doctor if there are hearing loss and dizziness.

There are a number of causes behind tinnitus. Age-related hearing loss, exposure to loud noise, earwax blockage and ear-bone changes are some of the causes. Some of the less common causes of tinnitus include Meniere’s disease, TMJ disorders, head or neck injuries, Acoustic neuroma, Eustachian tube dysfunction and muscle spasms in the inner ear.

Fatigues, stress, insomnia, depression, anxiety, lack of concentration and memory problems are some of the complications that arise from tinnitus.

In most of the conditions, tinnitus arises from something that cannot be prevented. However, some precautionary measures can be undertaken to prevent certain kinds of tinnitus. As long exposure to loud noises can lead to hampered hearing, using hearing protection and turning down loud volumes can prevent tinnitus. Regular exercise, eating right and developing other healthy habits to keep steady cardio-vascular health can also prevent tinnitus.

Mental Health: Multiple Personality Disorder

Multiple Personality Disorder (now Dissociative Identity Disorder) was first discovered by Dr. Jean Martin Charcot in the late 1880s. He was the chief physician at Salpetriere Hospital in Paris. He called this new disease Hystero-Epilepsy as the symptoms resembled two already discovered illnesses, Hysteria and Epilepsy. Ever since it was discovered, people have been fascinated with the illness which later came to be known as Multiple Personality Disorder.

The DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistic Manual) defines Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder) as a disruption of identity characterized by two or more distinct personality states or an experience of possession. Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is considered as a severe form of dissociation in which an individual’s mental process produces a lack of connection in a person’s thoughts, memories, feelings, actions or sense of identity. There are various causes of DID. It may be trauma experienced by the person early in life. The dissociative aspect is considered to be a coping mechanism against adverse situations. Psychological response to interpersonal and environmental stresses, particularly during early childhood years often leads to DID. Emotional neglect and abuse in the early years interfere with personality development. Dissociation can happen even if there is no overt physical or sexual abuse. 99% of individuals who develop dissociation have personal histories of recurring, overpowering or life-threatening traumas or disturbances. Studies show that DID affects about 1% of the population.

The disease is associated with overwhelming experiences, traumatic events or abuse that occurred during childhood. Some of the criteria for the diagnosis include the existence of two or more distinct identities (or “personality states”). The distinct identities are accompanied by changes in behavior, memory, and thinking. The signs and symptoms may be observed by others or reported by the individual. The second trait is ongoing gaps in memory about everyday events, personal information and/or past traumatic events. The final symptom includes significant distress or problems in social, occupational or other areas of functioning.

There are sudden shifts in attitudes and personal preferences as DID is characterized by the presence of two or more distinct personality states or split identities. Patients often cannot recall key personal information. There are also fluctuating memory variations. Not everyone who suffers from DID experience the same symptoms or personality changes. For some, the “alters” are of the same age, sex and race. Each has his own postures, gestures and their own way of talking. It becomes highly confusing as the observers will see the same person behaving, talking and walking in different manners as each personality reveals itself and controls the individual’s behaviors and thoughts. This process of revealing is known as “switching”. Switching can take seconds, minutes or days. Some seek the help of hypnosis where the person’s different “alters” or identities may become responsive to the therapist’s questions. Other symptoms of Dissociative Identity Disorder are headache, amnesia, time loss, trances, and “out-of-body” experiences. Patients with DID have a tendency toward self-persecution, self-sabotage, and violence, both self-inflicted and directed towards others. There is usually a “host” personality who identifies with the person’s real name. The “host” personality, however, is often unaware of the presence of other personalities. The four main effects of DID are depersonalization, derealization, amnesia and identity confusion or identity alteration. Some other psychiatric disorders that might occur with DID are depression, mood swings, suicidal tendencies, sleep disorders, anxieties, panic attacks and phobias, alcohol and drug abuse, compulsions and rituals, hallucinations and eating disorders.

Psychotherapy, hypnotherapy and adjunctive therapy may help patients with DID. Psychotherapy is also known as talk therapy. It is designed to work through whatever triggers the DID. The goal of psychotherapy is to fuse the different personalities into one. Clinical hypnosis can also be used to bring repressed memories to the front and work on them. Art therapies or movement therapies often help people to cope and connect with the parts of their minds that they have shut off to cope with trauma. This type of therapy is known as adjunctive therapy. However, there is no established medication treatment for DID.



Knee replacement: How does it work?

Knee arthroplasty also known as knee replacement resurfaces a knee with the help of a surgical procedure that has been damaged by arthritis. Various types of arthritis can affect the knee joint. Osteoarthritis is one of the common occurrences. It is a degenerative joint disease that mostly affects middle-aged and older adults. It causes the breakdown of the joint cartilage and the adjacent bones in the knees. Pain and stiffness can also arise from rheumatoid arthritis which causes inflammation of the synovial membrane and results in excessive synovial fluid. It can also result from traumatic arthritis which is a type of arthritis that arises from injury and causes damage to the cartilage.

Some of the medical treatments for degenerative joint diseases are anti-inflammatory medication, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, pain medications, limiting painful activities, assistive devices for walking, physical therapy, cortisone injections, and weight loss. Sometimes medical treatments are not satisfactory. In such cases, knee replacements prove to be a better option.

In a knee replacement surgery, the damaged knee joint is replaced with a man-made artificial joint called a prosthesis. Damaged bone and cartilage are removed from the knee joint and then the artificial pieces are placed in the knee. These pieces can be placed in the lower end of the thigh bone. This bone is called the femur and the replacement part is usually made of metal. The pieces can also be put in the upper end of the shin bone. This bone is called the tibia. The replacement parts are usually made of metal and strong plastic. The final part where the pieces can be fitted is the backside of the kneecap. It is called the patella. Here the replacement part is usually made from strong plastic.

During the surgery, there are two types of anesthesia that are used, general anesthesia which puts the patient into asleep and the individual cannot feel pain, or regional (spinal or epidural) anesthesia which makes the patient go numb below the waist. It is usually combined with medicine for sleep. After the anesthesia takes effect, the surgeon makes a cut above the knee which is about 8 to 10 inches. The first step involves removing the kneecap. Then he cuts the thigh bone and the shin bone to fit the replacement part. The underside of the kneecap is then cut to prepare it for new pieces that will be attached there. The two parts of the prosthesis are then attached to the bone. One part is attached to the thigh bone and the other part is attached to the shin bone. Bone cement or screws are used to attach the prosthesis to the bones. Special bone cement is then used to attach the underside of the kneecap. The muscles and tendons surrounding the knee joint are them repaired and the surgical cut is closed. A knee replacement surgery takes about 2 hours.

Once the patient is home, there are certain precautions that should be taken. Following the bathing instructions of the doctor, keeping the leg elevated, applying ice when necessary, taking pain relievers as recommended by the doctor, notifying the doctor immediately if the patient is experiencing fever, redness, swelling, bleeding or other drainages from the incision or increased pain around the incision site are some of them. One should also avoid driving and falling. Sometimes it is advised to use assistive devices while walking.

The results of total knee replacement surgery are often excellent. The operation relieves pain for most people. Most artificial knee joints last from 10 to 15 years. Some last as long as 20 years before it loosens and needs to be replaced. Therefore it is important to have the surgery at the correct time because often the results of the second surgery for replacing the old prosthesis are not satisfactory.



For ages women have been excluded from many aspects of socio

Painful menstrual cycles shouldn’t be the norm

For ages, women have been excluded from many aspects of socio-cultural life because of the taboos and myths that surround menstruation. It affects women’s emotional state, lifestyle mental health, and physical health. The exclusion of women from the “man’s world” stems from the myths and stigma attached to menstruation. Often a woman’s potential and capability is doubted because she bleeds. Whether it is running for political office or being taken seriously at home, women always have “crazy times” or “that time of the month” stamp they have to deal with.

A lot of women complain about having mood swings, severe cramps and it could be physically debilitating for many women. They take days off from work, but the truth of the matter is that periods are a very natural function of the female reproductive system.

 The challenge of addressing the socio-cultural taboos and beliefs in menstruation is compounded by limited knowledge and understanding of puberty, menstruation and reproductive health. In India the mere mention of the word is a taboo, this social belief appears to be a hurdle in the advancement of knowledge on the subject.  As members of modern, developing society everyone should fight against the misconstrued reality and bitter truths that surrounds menstruating women.

 Painful periods have been highly normalized in the past years. Women experience cramps in their lower abdomen and back, ranging from mild throbs to severe aches. The reason for period pain is prostaglandins, chemicals that uterus’ tissue lining produce to help the uterus contract during the menstruation cycle. Varying levels of prostaglandin production in the body determines the intensity of the pain. However, sometimes these painful menstruations can be a symptom of endometriosis. Lack of medical attention in these cases can lead to serious health risks in women. 1 in 10 women is affected by endometriosis during their reproductive years and has been estimated to affect 200 million women across the globe. This primarily happens because of the lack of awareness about it.

Dysmenorrhea is often mistaken as a regular side-effect of menstruation. Women usually take pain-killers to relieve themselves of the pain. Women often don’t realize the severity of the situation until it is too late. Therefore it is very important for women and health professionals to build open communication platforms and improve awareness around painful menstrual cramps. The taboo of being the silent and non-addressable state of menstruation is one of the main reasons why women themselves are not aware of painful period cramps. Therefore it is dismissed as a normal occurrence.

According to the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom and justice. People talk about equality and fairness, yet something as natural as menstruation is kept under a veil. This secrecy violets the dignity and respect of women and hurts their identity, self-worth, and self-esteem. Menstruation is a normal physiological process, and in order to progress and combat the problems associated with it, it should be treated as such.