Causes for Shoulder joint replacement?

If you think shoulder pain is only limited to the elderly or athletes, think again! In fact, it’s one of the most common areas that people are affected. The joint where your upper arm connects to your body is a ball-and-socket joint. The bone in your upper arm is called the humerus bone that has a round end which fits into the curvature on the outside of your shoulder blade. Ligaments and tendons hold it together. The ball and socket allow movement in the arm and legs.

Contrary to popular belief, damage to this region is highly possible and causes immense pain and distress. Although shoulder replacement is not as rampant as hip or ankle replacement procedures; joint replacement surgery is considered to be one of the safer and more effective procedures to relieve shoulder pain. It also helps you regain mobility to resume regular activities.

What is shoulder replacement surgery?

In shoulder replacement surgery, the broken part(s) of the shoulder is carefully removed. They are then replaced with artificial components which are known as a prosthesis. Originally they were made of polypropylene, however, they are now made using lightweight carbon fibre.

Amongst the most effective treatments,  replacement of the humerus bone (ball), or the replacement of both the ball and the socket is preferred.

Various people of different age groups may develop severe conditions and witness situations where the shoulder joint needs to be replaced. Here are some of the causes or reasons that call for a shoulder joint replacement:

  • Damaged rotator cuff arthropathy
    Someone with a chronic rotator cuff tear can develop cuff tear arthropathy. Sudden shifts or changes in the shoulder joint may result in arthritis and disintegration of the joint cartilage.
  • Post-traumatic Arthritis
    This is a condition caused mostly post-injury. Fractured bones in the shoulders or ligament tears cause moderate to extreme pain, restricting the shoulder’s movement.
  • Osteoarthritis (Degenerative Joint Disease)
    It’s a type of arthritis that’s typical with elderly people- results of wear and tear. People of the age range of 50 and above are generally who develop this condition. However, it may not be specific to age. It’s caused due to the wear and tear of the cartilage that provides padding to the shoulder bones. Pain and stiffening of the joint causes osteoarthritis. It’s also a common reason why people opt for shoulder replacement procedures.
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
    This condition affects the synovial membrane which surrounds the joint where it swells and thickens. Such chronic inflammation can damage the cartilage that results in disruptive movement and pain.
  • Osteonecrosis
    Avascular necrosis is a painful condition that develops when the blood supply to the bone is obstructed. Due to the lack of blood supply, bone cells die and can ultimately result in severe pain of the shoulder joint. This further leads to arthritis.

There is no defined way to guard yourself against shoulder joint injury, however, consuming calcium and potassium-rich foods can help strengthen your bones. Apart from that, avoiding extreme strenuous exercises must be avoided as it can increase the risk of damaged or injured bones. However, the only proven solution to treat such conditions is shoulder replacement surgery.

How to stay away from the pain of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease which causes damage to various parts of the body and is responsible for causing joint pain. It is known to cause joint pain on both sides of the body which implies that if you have joint pain on one side of your limb, it is highly likely to affect the other side of your limb as well. This attributes makes the diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis easier and helps to distinguish it from other types of arthritis such as osteoarthritis.

To relieve yourself from the pain caused by Rheumatoid arthritis, you must first be able to identify and notice the different kinds of symptoms associated with RA. To further enable you to identify the early symptoms of RA, we’ve listed them down below:

  • Mild to severe pain in the joint for prolonged periods of time

  • Swelling in the joints

  • Stiffness in the joints

  • Failure in the functioning of the joint

Symptoms might appear in an irregular pattern, however, it is highly recommended that you take immediate action when you identify them early.


Rheumatoid Arthritis does not have a known cure or treatment, however, various treatments for RA are directed towards the control and management of the joint pain, inflammation and discomfort. The suggested treatment often involve:

  • Medications that are nonsteroidal and anti-inflammatory like corticosteroids, acetaminophen

  • Homoeopathic treatments

  • Physiotherapy

  • Changes in the diet

There are several other ways to treat Rheumatoid by yourself especially to help control and feel relieved from the prolonged pain in the body. Here are some ways:

Get plenty of rest

It is highly recommended that you take a lot of rest, especially during flare-ups. This will allow the joints to stay rested and provide you with short-term relief.

Eat right

You must switch your dietary habits to a much simpler, calcium-rich diet to help strengthen your bones and keep you fit.

Avoid Vices

This is extremely necessary for you to follow- quit smoking and drinking alcohol as it will help restore your body’s equilibrium and not add to your pain caused by arthritis.

Hot & Cold Compression

Keep a hot water bag or ice pack handy at all times. Apply them from time to time to the affected area to aid the process of inflammation reduction and release muscles from spasms.


As much as it is necessary to rest, it is also essential that you exercise your body from time to time. You must make sure to do some warm-up exercises to reduce the stiffness in your joints and also relieve yourself from muscle pain and spasms.

These are all the things you need to know about Rheumatoid Arthritis and the preventive or relieving measures that can help you combat the pain in your joints and body. RA might not have a definite cure but it can be combated with the right approach, dedication and motivation from you!

The link between depression and air pollution

The highly stressful times that we live in, it is natural to be overwhelmed and feel lonely or depressed. While a short span of these negative vibes can be taken in one’s stride, a prolonged experience of these symptoms can be a sign of depression. Symptoms of depression are varied and can include fatigue, indecisiveness, insomnia, feeling of guilt, weight gain/loss, changes in appetite, headaches, prolonged cramps, anxiety and in worse cases suicidal thoughts. Prolonged experience of more than five of the above symptoms over a period of time which may be interfering with your daily activities is a sure shot sign of depression.

Apart from the above symptoms, recent studies have linked air pollution to an increased instance of depression in the urban population.  Air pollution can be defined as the presence of different substances (pollutants) in the atmosphere. These can be gaseous pollutants like nitrogen oxides and dioxides, carbon monoxide or sulfur dioxide or particulate matter or even heavy metal pollutants like lead or mercury.

Air pollution and depression:

In recent times, there have been surveys and studies conducted in countries like the US and Korea that have shown a definite relation between depression and air pollution. The studies have shown that pollutants that can trigger neuroinflammatory responses in the central nervous system can lead to increased instances of depression. Another study conducted by Ohio State University showed that air pollution interfered with the development of the hippocampus area of the brain. This area is responsible for learning, memory and depression. These are clear evidence that links air pollution and depression.

 It is imperative to lessen the exposure to these airborne particles, to avoid its harmful impact. Here are a few steps that one can take :

  1. Disallowing smoking at home: Tobacco is the main source of indoor air pollution and restriction on the same is vital in maintaining good air quality.
  2. Keeping doors and windows closed: Restricting the air flow especially during peak traffic hours can help. This is recommended especially if you live beside busy and dusty roads
  3. Consider having greenery around you: Indoor plants and the presence of a garden in your apartment/home or the building complex can have a positive influence on the air quality.
  4. Use of air cleaning device: The demand for air purifiers have increased and this is an effective tool in managing indoor air pollution.

These are some ways in which the air quality can be maintained in a controlled environment like inside your home or workplace. With increase in pollution the air quality is decreasing and is a concern that has to be addressed on a global arena.

How to cope with Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

Not many of us are aware of irritable bowel syndrome or IBS as its known, however, it is a common issue that affects many adults. IBS symptoms develop mostly during the 20s or 30s and are known to affect 1 in 5 adults with the female population being more susceptible than the male.

What is IBS?

IBS is a long term condition of the digestive system that causes abdominal cramps, discomfort, flatulence, diarrhea or constipation. The symptoms may vary between individuals and may affect different persons with varied levels of severity as well.

The exact cause of IBS is not known, but experts believe that gut sensitivity or difficulty in digesting the food may be the reason. The symptoms of IBS may come and go over a period of time and may last from a few days to even months. Stress and consumption of certain food types might act as triggers and so, it is important for the affected person to be aware of what one is consuming and its after-effects.

But IBS is not unmanageable, with a few simple measures, one can easily go about living a normal life.

Dietary restriction:

Being a condition related to your gastrointestinal tract, the food consumed has a huge impact. Being aware of what you are eating and what triggers your condition is the key to successfully manage and live with IBS.

  • A high-fat diet is the most common trigger and it will be beneficial to avoid such food items. The presence of fat might trigger colon contraction and cramps as well as diarrhoea.
  • Studies have shown that a low FODMAP diet that is low in fat and fermentable carbohydrates but high in protein can be beneficial.
  • Avoid carbonated drinks and raw fruits and cruciferous vegetables like broccoli and cabbage.
  • Including enough fiber in your diet in the form of whole grain bread and cereals, certain fruits and vegetables can be beneficial.
  • Consumption of probiotics has also been beneficial to some.

Reduce stress and Increase physical activity:

Stress is another prominent trigger and the inclusion of physical activity on the daily routine has shown positive results. Including relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation or visualization is advised. Finding time to include a 30 min workout schedule into your routine is beneficial and is known to help manage abdominal pain, stool issues as well as improved quality of life.

Try therapy and medication:

Psychological interventions such as talking therapy, gut-related hypnotherapy is helpful in managing IBS related anxiety and depression. There are certain medications that your healthcare provider can prescribe to help manage the symptoms of IBS. However, lifestyle change, being aware of your triggers, avoiding stress are the preferred ways to cope with IBS.

Gaming Disorder: a Mental health condition according to WHO

Gaming disorder has been included in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)11th  edition of the World Health Organisation. The above statement brings two prominent questions to one’s mind:

  1. What is the ICD-11 list and what is its significance?
  2. What is gaming disorder and what are its symptoms?

Global health trends and statistics, as well as the international standard for reporting diseases and health conditions, forms the base of the international classification of diseases(ICD)list. This list is extensively used by medical professionals all over the world to diagnose conditions and formulate treatment plans.  With the inclusion of gaming disorder in the list, the WHO has brought the magnitude of this issue and the negative impact it has on people into focus.

A person suffering from gaming disorder will have an uncontrolled addiction to play games online as well as offline mediums and secondly, this addiction will severely and negatively impact the personal as well as professional lives of the person.

Diagnosing the gaming disorder:

There is no magical threshold of this addiction, the crossing of which would mean a serious disorder. For diagnostic purposes, there are a few conditions considered by the WHO.

Firstly, the person should show symptoms over a period of time with the minimum time limit being 12 months. The symptoms include lack of control over gaming habits, prioritizing games over family and social life. Continued addiction despite the negative impact on work, education as well as personal life.

Mood disorders such as anxiety, depression and stress as well as obesity and sleep issues are also considered.

Treatment Plan:

Since this is a relatively new trend, the treatment would be similar to the one followed for addictive behaviours . Therapy, medication and self-help groups are beneficial. Psycho-education, emphasis on intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, family support and the development of a new lifestyle are other treatment methods that might be beneficial.

Tips for managing Multiple Sclerosis to lead a normal life

Living with Multiple sclerosis isn’t easy. There are a lot of challenges. As it affects the myelin sheath of brain cells that help to conduct the nerve impulses, patients experience symptoms like cramping, balance issues, tingling and numbness, muscle spasms, constant fatigue etc. But different strategies can help the patients live their best life and effectively control the symptoms:


Medicines like steroids help reduce the inflammation and delay the progression of the disease. Steroids help to reduce the autoimmune response in the body that is known to cause severe inflammation of myelin sheath in neurons. Patients need to contact their neurologist for the amount of medicine and its frequency to ensure it effectively helps them to lessen the symptoms. Skipping your medicine is not a choice at all unless you want to worsen your symptoms. Ensure to visit your doctor physically to get a general health check-up done once in a year.

Lifestyle changes:

Bringing a positive lifestyle change can increase the overall health of patients with MS. It helps to control the symptoms. Keep moving your body and exercise regularly. It promotes increases in flexibility in the body of patients. Perform exercises to maintain your balance. But be aware t take rests and keep yourself hydrated. You shouldn’t tire yourself too much that will demotivate you to exercise regularly.

Say no to alcohol or tobacco at any cost. Non-smokers Multiple sclerosis patients are found to be healthier than the ones who smoke.

Healthy diet:

Studies on many patients with MS have revealed that a diet rich in Omega 3 fatty acids, low in saturated fats help patients have an anti-inflammatory effect and thus helps to reduce the severity of the disease. Vitamins like Vitamin D and Biotin are also known to help patients lessen the symptoms.

Meditation methods:

Stress increase cortisol levels in the body. In MS patients cortisol doesn’t provide its anti-inflammatory effect because of excessive production.

Various meditative techniques like mindfulness-based meditation, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy or transcendental meditation helps to reduce the cortisol levels in body. Reduced cortisol level is also linked to improvement in sleep in MS patients. Thus, meditation has a two-fold effect as it reduces stress and helps to improve sleep pattern.

Bearing stress in mind is only going to aggravate the symptoms. So practice various techniques for meditation and have a healthy lifestyle to have a grip on your disease. Hence, it is absolutely possible to lead a normal life with Multiple sclerosis.

Management of Traumatic Brain injuries in the first few hours!

Traumatic brain injury refers to the damage to brain caused by a violent blow or hit on the head due to fall, road traffic accidents or human-inflicted injuries of violence such as bullet shot. These injuries can affect your brain to varying degrees depending upon the blow or impact. The physical, sensory or cognitive symptoms too will vary as per the extent of trauma. But managing these is extremely crucial in the first few hours.

The initial symptoms of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury:

  • Drowsiness

  • Blurred vision

  • Sleep disturbances

  • Poor concentration

  • Nausea

  • Mood alterations

The initial symptoms of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury:

  • Slurred speech

  • Difficulty in reading and writing

  • Disturbed touch, smell or temperature sensation.

  • Convulsions

  • Aggression

  • Sleep disturbances

These symptoms are assessed using a scale known as the Glasgow Coma Scale(GCS). A GCS number 8 or less indicates severe traumatic brain injury.

How to manage brain injury in the first few hours?

When brain gets hit, it gets inflamed and swollen. Since the brain is bound by the skull, the pressure inside the brain increases. As the pressure inside builds up, the blood supply to the brain gets limited and can create low oxygen zone in the inflamed area. If an expert is available, immediate endotracheal intubation will help the patient to breathe as they face a challenge to breathe on their own. Ambu bag can be used to manually resuscitate the person. By preventing oxygen deficiency, greater damage to the brain tissue can be avoided. That’s why the initial assessment of airway breathing and circulation is critical.

The emergency team at the hospital will check for any blood loss and will replace any lost blood. A feeding tube will help a patient to get proper nutrients to let their body fight the trauma. A neurosurgeon will advise CT or MRI scan to confirm the diagnosis and devise the treatment plan accordingly. Neurocritical care is required for patients will severe traumatic brain injuries who have lost their consciousness or in a comatose or paralysed state. In this life and death situation, doctors need to act swiftly and sharp.

The definitive treatment is planned once the doctors assess the diagnostic tests and confirm the diagnosis. Patient is put on sedatives to relieve the pain and control intracranial pressure. Patients with severe traumatic brain injury are more prone to having seizures. Thus, they are also given anti-seizure medications. Patient’s recovery varies depending upon the extent of the injury. It is important for the family to bear patience and stay strong as the recovery may take weeks, months or even years.


Sports physiotherapy- What are the benefits?

Thousands of people actively take part in sports these days. A number of people are getting conscious of the lifestyle diseases surrounding them and they are hitting the gym more often. So, it is imperative to understand the benefits of Sports Physiotherapy. Sports physiotherapy is a branch of physical therapy that helps treat sports-related injuries. It also aims to spread awareness among the masses regarding sports injuries and prevent future injuries.

Check out these benefits of Sports physiotherapists:

Say goodbye to pain- Sports physiotherapists will advise you to apply hot or cold packs, massage, dry needling or other methods to give immediate relief from pain. Pain can arise from an Ankle sprain, Torn ACL, Shin splints, Tennis elbow, tendonitis etc. These techniques help to ease muscle pain. Refrain from playing sports till the pain subsides. Consult sports physiotherapist when to get back on the ground. You might face an initial discomfort when you start again, but physiotherapy will help to build endurance in the damaged tissue and help it heal. Don’t pace up just after you have recovered from injury and don’t engage in multiple activities. It can lead to relapse in pain.

Identify your weak muscle areas- Continuous strenuous sports can result in an imbalance in your muscles. Sports physiotherapist will help you to asses the weak areas and thus prevent further damage. This will maximise the strength of the muscles especially if you try to get back after a break. This assessment will help you to boost your performance. The physiotherapist will advise you certain light exercises and other techniques before you begin your game to build the weak areas.

Managing Acute injury- Acute injury usually leaves you with doubt about your recovery period. The sports physiotherapist will help to assess the extent of the injury and provide you with an estimated recovery period. He will advise you to decrease the activity so that the pain doesn’t worsen. He will provide you with training to walk using aids such as crutches and thus help to take away the weight from the areas affected, this promotes faster healing.

Soft tissue therapy- Your soft tissues surrounding bones like muscles, tendons, ligaments all need to flex and stretch before you hit the ground. Treatments like Trigger point therapy, Myofascial release or Post-isometric relaxation are very good techniques for loosening up muscles or connective tissue and lessening pain. It also helps to break down any adhesions or scars and increases the overall range of motion.

Prevent future injury-

Young adults or kids often start playing sports activities without improper techniques and without understanding the pros and cons of the sports they are interested to play. This elevates the risks of sports injuries. These sports injuries can result in partial disability to perform daily activities and kids might have to miss their school. Parents can consult a sports physiotherapist before they start sports classes for their kid.

Athletes can prevent injuries by receiving proper training about warm-up exercises and stretches before the game and cooling exercises after the game. They can get soft and hard tissue assessment before the game to identify weak areas. This enables them to fortify those weak areas and exercise to build them. Also, they can get advice from their sports physiotherapist on when to resume strenuous exercise after an injury to prevent any relapse.

Thus a wide array of sport-related injuries are treated by Sports Physiotherapists. If you’re a sports enthusiast or a sports person, it is essential to seek advice from them to stay fit while keeping a sustained performance.

Don’t forget to take your Anti-Epileptic pills

Normal brain function involves millions of nerve cells or neurons communicating with the organs through the electrical signals sent by the brain. Each nerve cell is made of a cell body and branches called axons and dendrites which join other neurons at junctions called synapses. Millions and billions of these neurons constitute together to form a circuit. Seizures occur when there is an imbalance in these excitatory and inhibitory circuits, either in the entire brain or in a specific part of the brain. If the seizure occurs in a localized part of the brain then it is called Focal Epilepsy but if the seizure occurs in the entire part of the brain, it is called General Epilepsy.

The cause of epilepsy includes many factors. The brain works with the neurons to form a system and when this system disrupted due to faulty electrical activity, epilepsy occurs. The factors responsible for this disturbance may be head trauma, stroke, tumour, infectious diseases, prenatal injuries, autism, etc.

There are a few surgeries that can cure seizures if an underlying correctable brain condition is causing them otherwise there is no proper cure for seizures. Now when a person is diagnosed with epilepsy, the doctor may prescribe a few seizure-preventing drugs or anti-epileptic drugs. These drugs can stop the seizures from occurring temporarily so that the patient can lead a normal, productive life. These medications or drugs alter the electrical activity in neurons by affecting the ion channels in the cell membrane. These alter the chemical transmission between the neurons by affecting the neurotransmitters in the synapse. In simple words, the anti-epileptic drugs prevent seizures either by decreasing excitation or increasing inhibition in neurological activity. The anti-epileptic drugs should always be started with a low dose and slowly increasing it to reach a maintenance level and spacing medication doses appropriately can help in stabling the patient.

There are a few considerations associated with the drug treatment of epilepsy. As seen in many cases missing a dosage can be very harmful. So establishing a regular routine can help to avoid any medication being missed. Side-effects of these medications have been seen in many cases so the medications should be cut off immediately if any illness is seen. So don’t take medicine without the supervision of a doctor.

Stay fit. Stay Healthy.


All you need to know about Wilson’ disease!

Copper is very important for our body’s everyday nutrients needs. It plays a key role in developing healthy bones, nerves, collagen and the skin pigment called melanin. Copper from our food is absorbed and the excessive copper is excreted through a substance produced by our liver called the Bile juice. But sometimes the liver fails to eliminate the excessive copper from our body and the copper accumulates giving rise to a possibly life-threatening condition called Wilson’s Disease. It is a rare disorder which we inherit from our ancestors. Wilson’s disease causes copper to accumulate in a person’s liver, brain, and other vital organs of the body. This disease is also known as hepatolenticular degeneration.


Named after the American-born British neurologist, Dr Samuel Wilson who, in 1912, composed his doctoral thesis on the pathologic findings of “lenticular degeneration” in the brain associated with cirrhosis of the liver. Here’s the tricky part - although Wilson’s disease is inherited from the parents, it does have a few variations. Mutations of a gene called ATP7B causes Wilson’s disease. These genes are inherited from our parents but a child must inherit two ATP7B genes with mutation, one from each parent, to have Wilson’s disease. If a child inherits one ATP7B gene with a mutation from one parent and another ATP7B gene without a mutation from another parent, they won’t have Wilson’s disease but they will carry it. If this child grows up and has a baby with another person who doesn’t have Wilson’s disease but does carry the mutated ATP7B gene, then that child will have Wilson’s disease.


Wilson’s disease can be present at the time of birth but the symptoms won’t appear till the copper starts building up in the brain, liver or other organs. That Is why Wilson’s disease is mostly diagnosed at as early as 5 years of age.

- Dark urine and light colour stool

- Pain over the liver and upper abdomen

- Poor appetite

- Yellowish tint to the whites of an eye and skin

- Uncontrolled movements

- Stiffening of muscles


If diagnosed at an early stage, people will Wilson’s disease can be treated properly and often go on to live a happy and comfortable life. Doctors recommend medications such as penicillamine, trientine, and zinc acetate, etc. These medications bind copper and force it to release in the bloodstream which is then filtered in the kidneys and the copper is carried out with the urine.

If you have signs and symptoms that worry you moreover if you have a family history of Wilson’s disease then you should visit a doctor immediately.

Stay Fit. Stay Healthy.