Typhoid and everything you need to know about it

Typhoid is a serious bacterial infection that spreads through the contamination of food and water. It is caused by Salmonella Typhi bacteria. Typhoid can lead to a high fever, vomiting and diarrhoea. If typhoid is diagnosed early, it can be treated with antibiotics. If not, it can be fatal.  Urbanization and climate change have the potential to increase the risk of typhoid infection and spread. In addition, increasing resistance of bacteria to antibiotics making it easier for it to spread through overcrowded cities with inadequate water treatment and sanitation systems.

Typhoid spreads through oral-faecal route. (Passes through contaminated food or water) It can also be passed through direct contact with a person infected with typhoid. There are a small number of people who don’t suffer by typhoid but carry the S.typhi. These ‘carriers’ can also spread the infection. It is most prevalent in underdeveloped and developing countries where the water and sanitation facilities are poor. Regions such as India, Africa, South America and South-East Asia have a higher incidence of typhoid than other countries.

Symptoms of typhoid usually start showing between 6 and 30 days after the exposure or infection.

Fever and rashes are the two major symptoms. The fever gradually increases day by day. And the rash, which doesn’t affect every patient, is mostly found in the neck and abdomen area.

Other symptoms of typhoid are as follows,

  •          Weakness
  •          Stomach pain
  •          Fatigue
  •          Confusion
  •          Headache
  •          Poor appetite
  •          Constipation or diarrhoea

If left untreated, typhoid can cause more complications like intestinal bleeding or the fatal bloodstream infection, sepsis. Some of the complications that untreated typhoid could cause are,

  •          Paranoia
  •          Pneumonia
  •          Kidney or bladder infections
  •          Pancreatitis
  •          Myocarditis

Another infection, paratyphoid, caused by Salmonella enteric, has similar symptoms, but is less life-threatening.

Antibiotics are the only effective treatment for typhoid. Most commonly used antibiotics include Ciprofloxacin and Ceftriaxone. In severe cases, where the intestines have become perforated, surgery may be required. The developing resistance of the bacteria to the available antibiotics is a major concern for medical practitioners. New antibiotics such as Cephalosporins and Azithromycin are being used because of this reason. Resistance to Azithromycin has been reported but is not common as of yet. Even when the fever goes away, patients may still be carrying the bacteria. This increases the risk of it spreading to someone around them. Some practices have to be followed when you are being treated for typhoid.

  •          Take the prescribed antibiotics as long as the doctor asks you to, even if the fever goes away.
  •          Wash your hands with soap every now and then.
  •          Do not prepare or serve food.
  •          Have your doctor to ensure that the bacteria in completely eliminated before stopping your course of antibiotics.

There are two types of vaccinations against typhoid. But neither of them is completely effective.

Oral- A live vaccine that consists of 4 pills. One to be taken every second day. The last pill would be taken a week before your travel.

Shot- An inactive vaccine, administered two weeks before travel.

Your doctor might suggest typhoid vaccination under the following circumstances,

  •          If you are a carrier without the fever
  •          If you are in close contact with a carrier
  •          If you are travelling to a place where typhoid is common
  •          If you a laboratory worker who may come in contact with S.typhi

However, vaccines do not give you complete protection from typhoid. Fortunately, there are some preventative measures you can take in order to keep the bacteria out of your system.

  • Ensure food is properly cooked and still hot when served.

  • Avoid raw milk. Drink only pasteurized or boiled milk.

  • Avoid ice unless it is made from safe water.

  • When the safety of drinking water is questionable, boil or disinfect it with a reliable, slow-release disinfectant agent

  • Wash hands thoroughly and frequently using soap after contact with pets or farm animals, or after having been to the toilet.

  • Wash fruits and vegetables carefully with clean water, particularly if they are eaten raw.

If you’re recovering from typhoid fever, these measures can help keep others safe:

  • Be sure to finish the entire prescription of antibiotics so that the bacteria is completely wiped out.

  • The most important thing you can do to keep from spreading the infection to others is to wash your hands often. Use soapy water and scrub thoroughly for at least 30 seconds, especially before eating and after using the toilet.

  •  Avoid preparing food for others until your doctor says you’re no longer contagious. If you work in the food service industry or a healthcare facility, don’t return to work until tests show that you’re no longer shedding typhoid bacteria.

Typhoid is really contagious and preventing it might be quite a task. But one can always be clean and take proper measures in order to avoid the bacteria as treating it is a bigger task than ever, with the growing resistance of the bacteria to existing medications. It’s better to be safe than sorry.

If you have an unexplained fever that seems to be rising every day, it is advisable for you to seek a doctor right away. For more queries on typhoid or its vaccinations, feel free to get in touch with our doctors at 91-080-61930123 or inquiry@vikramhospital.com

Fever of Unknown Origin (FUO)

Fever of unknown origin or FUO is defined as fever at or above 101°F (38.3°C) that lasts for more than three weeks or occurs frequently without any explanation. This fever does not result from a self-limited illness, rapidly fatal illness, or disorders with clear-cut symptoms or with abnormalities on common tests such as chest x-ray, urinalysis, or blood cultures. A diagnosis is a step towards treating it when a doctor cannot determine the cause of the fever.


- Classic FUO

Classic FUO affects previously healthy people with no identified cause and lasts for over 3 weeks. Infections such as leukemia may be the cause of Classic FUO. Diseases that affect connective tissues can also be causes of Classic FUO.

- Immune-deficient FUO

This FUO usually occurs due to immunodeficiency diseases such as neutropenia. It occurs in people with compromised immune systems which puts them in at increased risk of infection.

- Healthcare-associated FUO

This FUO occurs as a result of hospitalization. This happens in people receiving acute care with no infection present and then begin to run the unexplained fever.

- HIV-related FUO

HIV can cause fevers and can make people susceptible to infections that can cause fever. It can last over 3 weeks in patients with confirmed HIV infection.


For diagnostic purposes, FUO can be categorized into four groups:

- Infection

Frequently accompanied by chills, it can occur due to infections from atypical mycobacteria, disseminated fungi, pet contact, blood transfusion, surgeries, oral care, etc.

- Inflammatory

Caused by infections occurring from common connective tissue disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, vasculitis, etc.

- Malignancy

It can occur from the most common neoplastic causes such as lymphoma, leukemia, pancreatic carcinoma, and other cancers and sarcomas. This FUO is identified by physicians when a significant weight loss occurs in the patient accompanied by early anorexia.

- Miscellaneous

Include drug reactions, deep venous thrombosis, recurrent pulmonary emboli, sarcoidosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and factitious fever.

Recognizing FUO in children

Your child may have a fever if they:

- Are less active than usual

- Have fussy behaviour

- Have decreased appetite or increased thirst

Giving your children acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil) to bring their fever down is fine, but you should not give them aspirin (Bayer) as it is associated with a very serious condition in children called the Reye’s Syndrome. Contact your pediatrician if your child:

- Cries inconsolably

- Has purple rashes on their skin

- Has a stiff neck

- Struggles to breathe.

Spinal Tuberculosis; Causes, symptoms and treatment

Tuberculosis is an incredibly infectious ailment resulting from the bacterium Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. It’s one of the top-10 causes of death, globally. Tuberculosis (TB) is most common in developing countries. It is preventable, and if discovered early, generally treatable.

Tuberculosis mostly affects the lungs, but in some cases, it can spread to other parts of the body. This syndrome is referred to as Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis (EPTB). One form of EPTB is bone and joint tuberculosis. Even though bone TB could affect any bone in your body, Spinal Tuberculosis is the most common in this category.

Tuberculosis is normally spread from person to person through the air. But Spinal TB occurs when you contract TB and it spreads beyond your lungs. It spreads through blood from the lungs or lymph nodes into the bones, spine, or joints. Spinal TB usually begins because of the rich vascular supply within the spine and other long bones. Bone tuberculosis is exceptionally rare; however the rate of it has accelerated in growing countries, partly due to the spread of AIDS.  It is tough to diagnose and may cause severe problems if left untreated.

Symptoms of Spinal TB

The symptoms of Spinal tuberculosis are nor easily recognizable until the condition gets really severe. It is specifically hard to diagnose because it is painless in its early stages and the subject may not be exhibiting any signs at all. In addition to this, TB can also be dormant for a long time in a person’s lungs before its spread to other parts without the patient being aware of any symptoms at all.

There are a few symptoms like swelling, stiffness, severe back pain and abscesses that can be identified when a patient has contracted TB. When the condition is advanced, some dangerous symptoms like neurological complications, limb-shortening in children, bone deformities and paralysis start showing. Patients with Spinal Tuberculosis may or may not exhibit general tuberculosis symptoms like fever, fatigue, night sweats and loss in weight.

Treatment of Spinal Tuberculosis

Spinal Tuberculosis can lead to a lot of painful effects. But the damage is usually reversible when treated with the right kind of medications. In most cases, surgery is required to treat spinal TB.

One such surgery is Laminectomy, where a part of the vertebrae is removed to eradicate the infection.

Medications are tried out for Spinal TB and surgery is used as the second resort. The course of treatment can last anywhere between six to eight months and medications include, antituberculosis medications, such as rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol and pyrazinamide.

The risk of developing Tuberculosis is more in growing and developing nations, due to the risk of the spread of AIDS. But even developed nations need to look out for Bone and Spinal Tuberculosis even though the risk is pretty low. After diagnosis, this can be treated with a regimen of medications or the combination of medications and surgery.

Dystonia and ways to treat it

Dystonia is a medical term for a variety of movement disorders that cause muscle spasms and contractions. The spasms and contractions might either sustain or recur. Movements are usually repetitive and cause uncommon, awkward and generally painful postures. Tremor shaking during movements may also be a characteristic of some kinds of dystonia. Dystonia is assumed to be a neurological condition, caused by underlying issues with the brain and nervous system. However, in most cases, brain functions like intelligence, memory and language stay unaffected.

What causes Dystonia?

The exact causes of the development of Dystonia remain unknown, however, it is thought to be caused by a complication with the part of the brain that controls muscle movement. If there is no classifiable reason behind Dystonia, or if the cause is genetic, it’s diagnosed as Primary Dystonia. Secondary Dystonia happens as a sign or symptom of an underlying condition or injury. Some common conditions that might cause Dystonia are strokes, brain injuries, encephalitis and Parkinson’s.

Methods of treatment

There’s no cure for Dystonia, however, the condition can be effectively managed. Treatment can vary based on the sort of Dystonia you’ve got and also the precise nature of your symptoms. There are some generic forms of treatment.


Botox injections into specific muscles may scale back or eliminate muscle contractions and improve abnormal postures. Sometimes these have to be taken for three to four months repeatedly. Side effects are usually temporary. Weakness, dryness in mouth or changes in voice are a few. Other medications target neurotransmitters that have an effect on muscle movement. Some of these medicines are:

Carbidopa-levodopa (Duopa, Rytary)

To increase levels of the neurochemical, Dopamine.

Trihexyphenidyl and benztropine (Cogentin)

These medications act on other neurochemicals besides Dopamine. Side effects include cognitive state, blurred vision, drowsiness, waterlessness and constipation.

Tetrabenazine (Austedo, Xenazine)

This medication blocks Dopamine. Side effects include sedation, nervousness, depression or sleep disorder.

Diazepam (Valium), clonazepam (Klonopin) and baclofen (Lioresal, Gablofen)

These medications scale back neurotransmission and may control some styles of Dystonia.


Your doctor or health care advisor might recommend,

  •         Stretching or massage to ease the pain.
  •         Physical therapy, occupational therapy or both to educe symptoms and improve functions.
  •          Speech therapy if the Dystonia affects the voice


If the symptoms are severe, the doctor might suggest,

Selective denervation surgery- It involves cutting the nerves that control muscle spasms. This treatment can be done if the condition doesn’t change despite other treatments.

Deep brain stimulation- Involves the implantation of electrodes into specific parts of your brain and connected to a generator implanted in your chest. The generator sends electrical pulses to the brain to help control the muscle spasms and contractions. The generator can be modified to treat specific conditions.

Home remedies

There are certain things one can do at home in order to control or reduce the symptoms of Dystonia

  •          Apply something hot or cold to ease muscle pain and control spasms.
  •          Practice effective coping skills such as meditation, deep breathing and positive self-talk in order to manage stress.
  •          Some sensory tricks can be used to stop muscle spasms temporarily.

Alternative remedies

  •          Meditation and deep breathing might ease the stress that can worsen your muscle spasms.
  •          Regular Yoga might help reduce spasms by combining physical postures, breathing techniques and relaxation.
  •          Electronically monitoring body functions like muscle tension, heart rate and blood pressure in order to learn to cope with them through different measures. This is called Biofeedback

Living with Dystonia will prove to be very difficult and frustrating. It may be uncomfortable in certain social situations. Therefore, it might be helpful to talk to a therapist or join a support group which will make the disease easier to live with.

If you are looking out of more information or any kind of help related to Dystonia, please feel free to get in touch with our doctors at 91-080-61930123 or inquiry@vikramhospital.com

What bit you? Could it be malaria?

Malaria, not an uncommon name in India, is a life-threatening disease caused by the female anopheles mosquito. Infected mosquitoes carry the plasmodium parasite which is injected into your bloodstream when the mosquito bites you. The parasites travel to your liver in the bloodstream and begin to mature there. After maturity, the parasites enter the bloodstream to infect red blood cells of the body.

The disease is mostly endemic to tropical and subtropical regions as that’s the ideal climate for the parasites. The World Health Organization (WHO) Trusted Source states that, in 2016, there were an estimated 216 million cases of malaria in 91 countries.

How is it caused?

Even though it is mostly caused by mosquito bites, it is bloodborne. So it can also be transmitted through:

  •          A blood transfusion
  •          An organ transplant
  •          Contaminated needles or syringes

An infected mother can also pass malaria to her baby. This is called congenital malaria.

How do I know if I have it?

Malaria is divided into two types, uncomplicated or severe. The symptoms of malaria usually develop within 10 days to 3 weeks of the infection. But some malarial parasites can enter the body and be dormant for a long time. So symptoms might not show up for several months. Common symptoms for all types of malarial infections include,

  •          Shivering and chills
  •          Profuse vomiting
  •          High fever
  •          Nausea and headaches
  •          Diarrhea
  •          Muscle pain
  •          Convulsions

Is it easily diagnosed?

Your doctor will be able to diagnose malaria just with a few blood tests and a liver or spleen examination to confirm it. The tests will be able to show you whether you have malaria, the type of malaria you have, if the disease has caused anaemia and if it has affected your vital organs.

How is it treated?

Malaria can be a fatal condition. Especially when you are infected with the parasite P. falciparum.

Patients are usually admitted for close monitoring and medications are prescribed based on the type of parasite and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, the parasites are resistant to medication and might not respond to drugs. You doctor might have to follow more than one medication pattern or change the medication completely in order to tackle these cases. Certain types of parasites have liver stages. They can live in your body for long periods of time and reactivate at a later date. If you are infected with one of these parasites, additional medication will be prescribed in order to prevent a relapse.

How do I prevent the infection?

As the disease is mostly caused by mosquitoes, insect and pest control is the most effective way.

  •          Don’t let water stagnate anywhere around your residence.
  •          Use mosquito repellent creams.
  •          Wear full-sleeved clothes when you are outdoors in the lawn or garden.
  •          Keep your indoors hygienic and bright as mosquitoes breed in damp conditions.
  •          Take prescribed medicines when you are travelling or camping.
  •          Use mosquito nets when required.

In emergency situations, local healthcare authorities carry out ‘fogging’, where they spray insecticides in large proportions in a community to prevent the spread of mosquito and insect-borne diseases.

While there are no specific prevention methods, one can always be proactive and keep their community clean and mosquito-free in order to prevent malaria from spreading.

Fibromyalgia; All you need to know about it

Fibromyalgia is a widespread musculoskeletal pain disorder accompanied by fatigue, sleep, memory and mood issues. It amplifies the pain sensations by affecting the way your brain processes pain signals. The symptoms develop after a traumatic incident, infection or surgery in some cases, and in others, the pain accumulates over time without any triggering events. Women are more likely to suffer from fibromyalgia than men.  Many people who suffer from this are also subjected to headaches, anxiety, depression, irritable bowel syndrome and TMJ disorders.

The symptoms of fibromyalgia can be controlled through a variety of medications, exercise, relaxation and stress reduction. But there is no complete cure to the disease till date.



It can run in the family and certain mutations make you more susceptible to the disease.


Some illnesses can trigger or aggravate fibromyalgia.

Physical or emotional trauma-

It can be triggered by a traumatic incident or even stress.

Even though we don’t know what exactly causes fibromyalgia, research suggests that there are physical, psychological and neurological factors involved. Anxiety or depression can make the pain seem worse. And being in pain can cause low mood, sadness and irritability. People suffering from this condition experience pain differently and are more sensitive to physical pressure.


Symptoms of fibromyalgia are prominent and aren’t difficult to take notice of. Some of the major ones are,

Extreme tiredness-

People suffering from this disease wake up tired even after long hours of sleep.

Cognitive difficulties-

It is commonly known as ‘fibrofog’ or ‘brainfog’. Patients have trouble focussing on a particular mental task, paying attention or remember things properly.

Widespread pain-

Patients suffer from pain on both sides of their body and both above & below the waist.

Sleep disturbance-

People who suffer from fibromyalgia have sleep disruptions caused by pain, restless legs syndrome and sleep apnea.

Other common symptoms are:

  •          Irritable bowel syndrome
  •          Migraines
  •          Painful bladder syndrome
  •          Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJ)


It is quite difficult to diagnose fibromyalgia first because there are other conditions that cause the same symptoms. And currently, there are no lab tests for the condition which can result in a delayed or missed diagnosis.

The American College of Rheumatology has established three criteria for diagnosing fibromyalgia.

  •          Pain symptoms over one  week, out of the 19 identified body parts, levels of fatigue, trouble in sleeping or cognitive problems
  •          Ongoing symptoms (3 months)
  •          Absence of another health problem to explain the symptoms

Tender points were used earlier to diagnose the condition. But these are no longer recommended as a criterion to diagnose fibromyalgia.


Fibromyalgia has no complete cure as of yet. Your doctor will be able to prescribe treatments that will control the symptoms and ease your pain. These may include drug treatments but other therapies are just as important. Some of them are as follows,

  •        Physiotherapy
  •        Occupational Therapy
  •        Active exercise programs
  •        Massages
  •        Behavior modification therapy
  •        Anti-Depressants
  •        Acupuncture

Many patients affected by the condition  have learned to manage their conditions and lead fairly normal livesAlthough the disease isn’t curable, conditions can improve significantly for patients following their treatment plan.  Modern medicine and brilliant medical practitioners have given patients the luxury of controlling the symptoms drastically and living a normal life.

Childhood depression; why seeking help is more important than being worried?

Depression can occur in various forms and at  various stages of life. Chronic depression often makes people lonely, aloof and in extreme cases leads to suicides Fortunately, with the right guidance and therapy, depression is manageable.

Childhood depression occurs because of different reasons. Sometimes, children face and go through depression for reasons that adults can’t understand or find ‘silly’. It is different from the general ‘blues’ and daily emotions that the child develops. just because he/she seems sad, it doesn’t mean they are going through depression. But if this becomes a persistent issue that interferes with normal activities, social interactions, schoolwork or family life, it may indicate a depressive illness. It’s a sensitive self-diagnosis before you take it forward to a therapist or paediatrician.

What causes childhood depression?

Depression, in general, is caused by a combination of various psychological and emotional contributors that result in the biological deficiency of serotonin in the brain.  Depressive disorder in children does not have one specific cause. But here are some contributors that might tell you why the child is facing it.

  •         Disruptions to family life ( parental conflicts, divorce etc )
  •         Bullying
  •         Exposure to physical, emotional and verbal violence
  •         Traumatic instances like physical, emotional or verbal abuse
  •         Social isolation
  •         Negative body imaging
  •         Subject of excessive criticism

These causes can kick-start a chain reaction and cause various types of disorders that might result in chronic depression. That’s why it is important for your child to grow up in a place that is healthy for his/her mental and emotional growth.

How do you tell if your child is depressed?

Due to the sensitive nature of the symptoms, depression in children often goes undiagnosed or ignored. The symptoms are passed off as normal emotional and psychological changes that occur during growth.

This might result in ‘masked depression’ which affects children chronically at different stages of their life. Childhood depression is mainly evidenced by a sudden ‘acting out’ or an angry behaviour of the child, particularly in younger children. Older children may display consistent sadness or low mood similar to adults.

The primary symptoms of childhood depression include,

  • Irritability or anger
  • Continuous feelings of sadness and hopelessness
  • Social withdrawal
  • Increased sensitivity to rejection
  • Changes in appetite — either increased or decreased
  • Changes in sleep — sleeplessness or excessive sleep
  • Vocal outbursts or crying
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Fatigue and low energy
  • Physical complaints (such as stomachaches, headaches) that don’t respond to treatment
  • Reduced ability to function during events and activities at home or with friends, in school, extracurricular activities, and in other hobbies or interests
  • Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
  • Impaired thinking or concentration
  • Thoughts of death or suicide

Not all children might face all of these symptoms. Although a lot of them function reasonably well in structured environments, the ones with significant depression will suffer from prominent changes in social activities. Children may also begin using drugs or alcohol, especially if they are 12 or older.

Is there a way to prevent depression in children?

Seeking help is an easier task than preventing depression. Almost all humans go through a depressive state of mind at least once in their life. But extra care has to be given to children because they are at a sensitive stage of life. Childhood Depression, when left untreated, will have chronic effects throughout the life of the child. Even though there are no set measures to prevent depression, some measures can be taken to keep the child mentally and emotionally healthy.

  •         Healthy parent-child interactions and attachment can make them feel secure.
  •         Model good parental behaviour
  •        Supportive parenting
  •         Good peer relationships
  •          Regular social interactions with other healthy minds
  •          Prevention of bullying
  •        Healthy and nutritious diet
  •        Regular habit of physical exercise

      There are always measures that one can take. But at the end of the day, life happens to us and each one of us has to fight different battles at various stages of our lives. Parents need to be more open-minded make their children understand that it is okay to seek help, despite the social stigma around depression and therapy. Mental illnesses are just like physical illnesses. They require the same level of care and attention, in order for humans to be at their best potential. This should be established in young minds so that the future generations know that it’s important to seek help and take care of themselves.

If you are looking to seek out help or know someone who needs it, please feel free to call us


An overview of pediatric hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus, in lay man’s terms, is the build-up of fluid in the brain.

Cerebrospinal fluid is a water-like substance in the brain which is made in the walls of the ventricles. This fluid cushions the brain within the skull as it flows from the upper ventricles to the lower and over the surface of the brain. It is then absorbed into the bloodstream.

Hydrocephalus is what occurs when the body makes more cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) than the brain absorbs. Its termed as pediatric hydrocephalus in children, but it can happen to a person at any age.

What causes Pediatric Hydrocephalus?

The two base causes of hydrocephalus are,

  • The bloodstream is not absorbing CSF due to an impaired filter in the brain

  • Flow of the fluid is blocked

Other causes include,

  • Body making excessive fluid (rare scenario)

  • Premature birth/ Birth injuries

  • Infections and Tumours

  • Bleeding inside the child’s brain

  • Severe head injuries

  • Deformed blood vessels in the child’s head

This condition can also be congenital; your baby can be born with it.

What to look out for? 

Even though symptoms occur differently for different people, there are some signs everyone should watch out for.

  • Abnormal bulging or soft spot in the child’s head

  • Head growing more quickly than the others of the same age group

  • Noteworthy delay in growth and development

  • Frequent vomiting, seizures and severe headaches

If your child is facing two or more of these symptoms, it’s advisable to contact your pediatrician immediately.

Is it easily diagnosed? 

There are not a lot of complications in diagnosing hydrocephalus.
A doctor might spot this condition during your ultrasound. In many cases, hydrocephalus doesn’t develop until the later stages of pregnancy. In such cases, earlier ultrasound might miss it and the condition might be diagnosed after birth. The child’s family history, prenatal and birth will be examined for the diagnosis. If your child has a developmental delay or the head is unusually large, the doctor might check for the underlying problem with hydrocephalus as a possibility. Hydrocephalus can also be diagnosed through various tests like MRIs and CT Scans.

How to treat Hydrocephalus? 

Even though the treatment depends on the child’s symptoms, age and general health, the most common treatment for hydrocephalus is inserting a ventricular shunt. It is a tube that drains the excess fluid to another part of the body where it can be absorbed. The shunt generally runs behind the child’s ears beneath the skin to the child’s heart, lungs or abdomen depending on the health condition and other factors.

There exists a second kind of treatment called Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy (ETV) which has proven to be more effective in managing the symptoms caused by the ventricular system. But this can be done only in a few cases.

The key to treating hydrocephalus is getting it diagnosed early and the prevention of infections or injuries. As it can affect the development of the child’s brain directly, his/her outlook depends on the severity of the condition. He/She will require regular medical checkups and attention to make sure his/her shunt is working as it’s supposed to. Your child would also need a lot of mental and emotional support to get through this condition and treatment successfully, irrespective of what age they are.

Do your best to give them the treatment they need and the support they deserve.


What is ischemic stroke & what causes it?

A stroke occurs when a body stops supplying blood to the brain and ischemic strokes occur when the arteries of your brain get blocked cutting off the blood flow to the brain. Also known as Ischemia, this is accountable for the majority of strokes. The blocked blood flow in the arteries in ischemic stroke may be caused by a blood clot or by atherosclerosis, a disease which causes narrowing of the arteries over time. This condition causes fatty deposits and buildup of cholesterol plaque in the blood vessels.

Risk factors
Many factors can increase your stroke risk. Some factors can also increase your chances of having a heart attack. Potentially treatable stroke risk factors include
- High blood pressure
- Diabetes
- Atherosclerosis
- Carotid artery disease
- Cholesterol
- Unhealthy diet
- Aged over 55 years of age.


There are quite a few causes of ischemic stroke:

- An ischemic stroke can occur due to atherosclerosis, a condition that causes fatty deposits and cholesterol plaque in the arteries and blood vessels around the brain.

- When too much plaque collects in one spot, it can block the blood flow to other vital organs as well.

- If a blood clot in the artery or blood vessel sticks to this plaque, it can create a blockage.

- Our neck contains carotid arteries that supply blood to the brain. If these carotid arteries are blocked by plaque, a stroke might occur.

- A less common cause of ischemic stroke is hypotension or low blood pressure when the flow of the blood gets so low that it doesn’t reach the brain.

Ischemic stroke is life-threatening, so it’s important to seek medical care as soon as the symptoms appear. An Ischemic stroke usually affects one side of the body and develops quickly.

- Face dropping
- Arm weakness
- Speech problems
- Dizziness
- Confusion
- Difficulty walking
- Inability to understand speech
- Severe headache

The brain depends on oxygen-rich blood so a blockage can cut off the oxygen supply to the brain-damaging and destroying brain cells. Prompt treatment is essential in case of a stroke so it’s important for the patient to receive medical treatment within the first two hours when the symptoms begin. The patient may receive a medication to dissolve the clot, such as tissue plasminogen (tPA), which can increase the chances of a full recovery. A surgical procedure, known as thrombectomy, also may reverse stroke symptoms.

The goals of treatment are to prevent life-threatening complications that may occur soon after stroke symptoms develop, prevent future strokes, reduce disability, prevent long-term complications and help the patient get back as much normal functioning as possible through rehabilitation.

Pneumonia & its different types

Pneumonia is an infection in the lungs that causes inflammation in the air sacs in one or both the lungs. This infection is caused by bacteria, virus, or fungi. The air sacs or alveoli may fill with fluid or pus, causing severe coughing with pus, fever, chills, and difficulty in breathing. Pneumonia, in terms of seriousness, can range from mild to life-threatening.

he infection can be life-threatening to anyone, but particularly to infants, children, people over 65, and people with a weak immune system.

The signs and symptoms of pneumonia vary from person to person depending on factors such as the type of germs causing the infection, age, and overall health. All these factors decide the severity of the symptoms of pneumonia.

- Shortness of breath
- Chest pain
- Cough with phlegm
- Fever, sweating, and shaking chills,
- Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
- Fatigue

Pneumonia is generally caused by germs that can include bacteria and viruses. These germs are generally stopped by the body from attacking and infecting the lungs. But sometimes these germs can overpower the immune system and affect the lungs directly even if a person is in good health.

The major types of pneumonia are categorized on the basis of the cause of the infection, where the infection was transmitted, and how the infection was acquired.

- Bacterial Pneumonia
Bacterial pneumonia is spread from one person to another. Primarily airborne, being in close proximity to a patient increases the chances of getting pneumonia. This is especially common in those with weaker immune systems.

- Viral Pneumonia
Viruses are the second most common cause of pneumonia. These can include the same viruses that bring on cold and flu. Viral pneumonia is usually not serious and lasts for a shorter time than bacterial pneumonia. Respiratory viruses are often the cause of pneumonia, especially in young children and older people.

- Walking Pneumonia
This is a less severe form of pneumonia and is also known as ‘atypical pneumonia’. In walking pneumonia, the symptoms are so mild that most people who are infected by it don’t even know that they have it. Walking pneumonia feels like a bad cold where the patient has a mild fever, cough, and a headache.

- Fungal Pneumonia
Fungus is a less common cause for pneumonia. If one is healthy with a strong immune system, the chances of getting fungal pneumonia are low to nil. But there is a higher chance of catching it if the immune system is weakened from a heavy medical procedure such as an organ transplant, chemotherapy, or HIV, etc. Fungal pneumonia occurs from breathing in tiny particles called fungal spores.

- Hospital-acquired pneumonia

Some people catch pneumonia during their stay at a hospital for another illness. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is dangerous as the bacteria causing it may be more resistant to antibiotics as the people who get it are already sick.

- Community-acquired pneumonia

Community-acquired pneumonia is the most common type of pneumonia and can be caused by bacteria, virus, and fungi. There are vaccines available that can help in protecting against the flu-virus and certain bacteria.

See a doctor if you are having difficulty breathing or experiencing any other symptoms given above.